The energy sector faces significant challenges in meeting the demands of the world’s growing population. Traditional fossil fuels still have a role to play in serving those needs and as Earth’s natural resources become harder to extract, engineers are grappling to find solutions to complex technical challenges.
At the same time, we are witnessing the exponential growth of renewable energy, fuelled by the need to tackle emissions and secure a more sustainable future for energy provision. The sector is attracting significant investment and to secure the outputs required, it must continually evolve. In future years, the focus will be on finding new ways of scaling up and improving efficiencies.
Whether you are extracting deep sea oil or constructing towering wind turbines, many of the challenges are the same. How do you ensure structural integrity, uphold safety standards and make your project as reliable and robust as possible?
The answer lies in innovation, investing in R&D and forming long-term partnerships with manufacturers who share your vision. Whatever tomorrow might have in store for the global energy sector, that collaborative approach is what will turn concepts into workable projects and overcome technical difficulties with the smartest of solutions.
The white paper “Power Generation from Wind to Wave – Creating Tension and Maintaining It” is written by Boltight, part of the Nord-Lock Group.
To receive the full white paper, please submit the form below. This white paper is currently only available in English.
First published in Bolted #1 2017.
Range: >40 models from 450 kg to 20 tonne
End-customers: Crusher manufacturers and mines
Product used: Expander System Pivot Technology
Applications: Breaker boom systems
Rambooms Oy is a global supplier of breaker boom systems to crusher manufacturers and mines. Based in Finland, its products are used to break oversized rocks.
Pivot wear on these applications is a natural occurrence through time and repeated use, and the company had previously been using its own solution to prevent this. This solution, with a basic conical locking, had caused some issues. Rambooms’ own pins also arrived at its factory in pieces rather than assembled, which meant extra repacking work for personnel when sending the pins on as spare parts.
In 2009, the company took the decision to test the Expander System pivot technology and has been extremely satisfied with the results. The Expander pivot pins are already fully assembled when they arrive. This represents a significant time and cost saving in a competitive industry. Technicians have found fitting and locking much easier than the company’s previous solution.
The Expander System has offered Rambooms significant peace of mind, as it has had no customer issues with pivot wear since the company employed it. A marked improvement in delivery times has also been noted, as Expander always has the stock ready to ship.
“Our customers recognise the fact that the Expander pivot technology means good quality. This reflects well on us and our business,” says Samppa Varhomaa, Product Manager at Rambooms Oy.
The Expander System is locked into the pivot on the machinery when fasteners are tightened. The double-sided locking increases safety and stability, while both fitting and dismantling is simple.
First published in Bolted #1 2017.
Q: How does lubrication affect hydraulic tensioning and multi-jackbolt tensioning?
A: With the traditional method of tightening a nut, using a spanner, lubrication is very important, as there are a lot of surfaces moving against each other – the threads of the nut against the threads of the stud and the underside of the nut against the surface of the joint. Overcoming these frictional forces accounts for approximately 90 percent of the work (energy input) applied to generating the load in the joint.
When a hydraulic tensioning tool applies a clamping load to a joint, lubrication has no effect as it is applied directly to the stud and joint. A tension force is a linear force applied in an axial direction, so there is no rotation required to generate the load. This allows the nut to be turned down against the joint face under minimal friction.
As there is no friction to consider, there is no need to reduce the coefficient of friction using lubrication. Also, the lack of friction in the application permits much more accurate and repeatable results.
With multi-jackbolt tensioners (MJTs), the use of a lubricant on the main bolt thread does not affect the preload. It is advisable to use a very light film of lubricant with anti-seize characteristics to facilitate tensioner removal.
A more tangible effect of lubrication for MJTs is from the required lubricant use on the individual jackbolt threads, jackbolt bottoms of the tensioner, and washer face.
Proper use of lubrication is crucial to safeguarding repeatable and precise preload control in Superbolt installations. Superbolt mainly uses a graphite-based lubricant with a low friction coefficient and steady performance to achieve a positive impact on the preload. The MJTs are delivered with lubricant pre-applied to the installed jackbolts. Additional lubricant is included for application to the jackbolt bottoms. For subsequent installations, reapplication of lubricant is required to provide the intended performance.
First published in Bolted #1 2017.
ENERGY. With oceans covering more than 70 per cent of the earth’s surface, wave power is potentially a huge untapped source of renewable energy. The problem is that most wave energy converters are too large and costly to be commercially viable. Swedish company CorPower Ocean could have the answer.
The company’s compact Wave Energy Converter works by oscillating in resonance with waves, amplifying their motion and then converting that energy into power. CorPower Ocean founder, cardiologist Stig Lundbäck, invented the initial concept based on the pumping principles of the human heart. In the same way that a heart uses hydraulically stored energy to form back in place, the Wave Energy Converter uses a pneumatic pre-tension system to pull down the buoy after it has been lifted by a wave.
This allows for a relatively small device to harvest a large amount of energy. It is estimated that one buoy, eight metres in diameter, can generate around 250 kilowatts of power. That is enough electricity for around 200 homes.
“If you look at wave energy potential, somewhere between 10 to 20 percent of global electricity consumption could be provided by wave power,” says Patrik Möller, CEO, CorPower Ocean. “It has the potential to become the most competitive source of renewable energy. It offers five times more energy density than wind and ten times more than solar power. Waves have fewer variations and are more predictable than sun and wind, so you know a few days in advance what the energy flow will be.”
Currently, the Wave Energy Converter is undergoing tests with simulated wave loading, while a full-scale demonstration is being set up to begin in 2017. One of the key challenges has been keeping the buoy small and lightweight, while at the same time strong and durable enough to survive the toughest storms at sea.
This has presented a number of fastening challenges. On the mainframe inside the buoy, CorPower Ocean has elected to use Superbolt tensioners due to their lower torque requirements compared to a single bolt, which makes assembly far more manageable. Superbolt can also guarantee reliability over the buoy’s intended 20-year lifespan. At the base of the buoy, Nord-Lock washers are used, since they can maintain the correct tension over many load cycles over a long period of time.
Boltight’s Typhoon range of bolt tensioners offer a high-load, low profile solution for space-restricted applications that demand high and accurate preloads. A solution widely used within the Wind industry where such space-restricted connections are common. Additional convenience features such as a spring loaded gear drive for nut rotation and automatic piston retraction, ensure that Typhoon bolt tensioners are the ideal choice for any application demanding a powerful, portable and user-friendly bolt tensioning tool.
Boltight’s Piston Retraction system takes the hard work out of resetting bolt tensioner piston stroke. Depending on the design of the tensioner, the pump will give automatic piston retraction or assisted piston retraction.
Quick and easy, it saves operation time, reduces operator fatigue, and promotes safe and efficient working practice.
First published in Bolted #1 2017.
Customer: KTM Sportmotorcycle AG
Production: >160,000 motorcycles ANNUALLY (2015)
Number of world titles: 270
Company size: 2,900 employees, one billion Euro in revenue
Strongest motorcycle: KTM 1290 SUPER DUKE R, aka “The Beast” (177 HP, 1,301 cc, 144 Nm, 189 kilos)
Nord-Lock products: Nord-Lock washers for M6, M8, and a customized washer
Number of models: 45
Pick any of the world’s most exciting motor races and you will find the orange motorcycles by KTM, Europe’s largest manufacturer, among the top contenders.
Located in Mattighofen, Austria, close to both motorsport-crazy Italy and R&D stronghold Germany, KTM mixes influences from both countries with its own “never give up” attitude. After failing to cross the Dakar finishing line ten times, KTM turned failure into a winning streak that has lasted since 2001.
KTM is the only manufacturer that bolts the gearshift lever axially instead of clamping it, making it easier to access with tools. However, the bolt that attaches the conic gearshift lever to the shifter shaft was a weak spot on early pre-series bikes. Heavy washers combined with glue couldn’t prevent loss of preload during some of the most extreme jumps, where the riders land with their foot on the gearshift lever. The whole lever would come loose.
Standard Nord-Lock washers were either too large or too thick to solve the issue. However, Nord-Lock customized an NL6sp washer, with an outer diameter of 16.6 mm instead of 13.5 mm. Two years later, KTM hasn’t seen one single case of gear-lever bolt failure.
Safety is everything for the Irish Rail. When they noticed that the bolts on their axle boxes were loosening due to vibration, they decided to replace the locking-wire mechanism on the wheel sets with Nord-Lock washers.
“Since the introduction of the Nord-Lock washers we have not had one instance of a bolt coming loose which give us a lot of comfort from a safety point of view”, says Conor Doyle, Senior Fleet Technical Support at Irish Rail.
Two years on since the first installation of Nord-Lock washers and Irish Rail has been more than satisfied with the outcome.
Watch the video of Irish Rail sharing their experience of using the Nord-Lock washers:
Learn more: Advantages of Nord-Lock washers
Learn more: Nord-Lock Group solutions in the Railway industry
Watch now: ActSafe trusts the proven quality of Nord-Lock washers